You may be able to bolt up a 17" wheel from a new Cherokee but the offset is higher so you'd really need to test fit them. My guide says that a wheel with a 17x8 with a +56mm offset (2012 17" Grand Cherokee factory wheel) should fit but it doesn't tell me if the wheel will clear your 2006 brake calipers and it also doesn't tell me if that wheel will work with the factory tire.
As far as aftermarket wheels go. Here's a link to the 17" wheels we guarantee to fit. If you are planning on running a taller or wider tire in the future a wide wheel with a lower offset (lower than your factory offset) will help give you room for it.
Link: 17" Jeep Grand Cherokee aftermarket wheels